Vol. 106

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Multi-Wavelength Fiber Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on a Highly Nonlinear Fiber and a Sagnac Loop Filter

By Daru Chen and Bing Sun
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 163-176, 2010


A novel multi-wavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator (MW-FOPO) with a ring cavity structure is proposed. In the ring cavity of the MW-FOPO, a Sagnac loop filter which is formed by a 3-dB optical coupler, a polarization controller and a segment of polarization maintained fiber is used as the comb filter, and a segment of highly nonlinear fiber is used as the gain medium. Multi-wavelength lasing of the MW-FOPO with a wavelength spacing of about 0.8nm is achieved and its power stability at room temperature is demonstrated by measuring peak power fluctuation within 42 minutes for 5 lasing wavelengths. The output spectrum of the MW-FOPO covers a large wavelength region from 1500nm to 1610 nm. A comparison of the output spectra between the MW-FOPO and the multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser is also presented.


Daru Chen and Bing Sun, "Multi-Wavelength Fiber Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on a Highly Nonlinear Fiber and a Sagnac Loop Filter," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 106, 163-176, 2010.


    1. Littman, M. G. and H. J. Metcalf, "Spectrally narrow pulsed dye laser without beam expander," Appl. Opt., Vol. 17, 2224-2227 , 1978.

    2. Tajima, T. and J. M. Dawson, "Laser electron accelerator," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 43, 267-270, 1979.

    3. Witteman, W. J., "The CO2 laser," Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 53, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1987.

    4. Agrawal, G. P. and N. K. Dutta, Long Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc., New York, NY, 1986.

    5. Numai, T., Fundamentals of Semiconductor Lasers, Springer, New York, 2004.

    6. Koechner, W., Solid-state Laser Engineering, Springer Science & Business Media, Inc., 2006.

    7. Arakawa, Y. and H. Sakaki, "Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 40, 939-941, 1982.

    8. Denk, W., J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fuorescence microscopy," Science, Vol. 248, 73-76, 1990.

    9. Meng, X. G., J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, "Near infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass," Opt. Express, Vol. 13, 1628-1634, 2005.

    10. Ball, G. A. and W. W. Morey, "Compression-tuned single-frequency Bragg grating fiber laser," Opt. Lett., Vol. 19, 1979-1981, 1994.

    11. Limpert, J., T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express, Vol. 11, 818-923, 2003.

    12. Jeong, Y., J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, and J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Express, Vol. 12, 6088-6092, 2004.

    13. Huber, R., M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking (FDML): A new laser operating region and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express, Vol. 14, 3225-3237, 2006.

    14. Wang, M. J., Z. S. Wu, Y. L. Li, and G. Zhang, "High resolution range profile identifying simulation of laser radar based on pulse beam scattering characteristics of targets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 96, 193-204, 2009.

    15. Shwetanshumala, S. Jana and S. Konar, "Propagation of a mixture of modes of a laser beam in a medium with saturable nonlinearity," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, 65-77, 2006.

    16. Fu, X., C. Cui, and S. C. Chan, "Optically injected semiconductor laser for photonic microwave frequency mixing in radio-over-fiber," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 7, 849-860, 2010.

    17. Wei, H. Y. and Z. S. Wu, "Study on the effect of laser beam propagation on the slant path through atmospheric turbulence," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 22, No. 5/6, 787-802, 2008.

    18. Li, J., J. Wang, and F. Jing, "Improvement of coiling mode to suppress higher-order-modes by considering mode coupling for large-mode-area fiber laser," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 8/9, 1113-1124, 2010.

    19. Maiman, T. H., "Stimulated optical radiation in ruby masers," Nature, Vol. 187, 439-440, 1960.

    20. Han, Y., T. V. A. Tran, S. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Multiwave-length Raman-fiber-laser-based long-distance remote sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," Opt. Lett., Vol. 30, 1282-1284, 2005.

    21. Ou, H., H. Fu, D. Chen, and S. He, "A tunable and reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on a Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun., Vol. 178, No. 1, 48-51, 2007.

    22. Shen, G. F., X. M. Zhang, H. Chi, and X. F. Jin, "Microwave/millimeter-wave generation using multi-wavelength photonic crystal fiber Brillouin laser," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 80, 307-320, 2008.

    23. Liu, S. C., Z. W. Yin, L. Zhang, X. F. Chen, L. Gao, and J. C. Cheng, "Dual-wavelength FBG laser sensor based on photonic generation of radio frequency demodulation technique," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 23, No. 16, 2177-2185, 2009.

    24. Moon, D. S., U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chang, "Multi-wavelength lasing oscillations in an Erbium-doped fiber laser using few-mode fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express, Vol. 12, 6147-6152, 2004.

    25. Liu, X., X. Yang, F. Lu, J. Ng, and X. Zhou, "Stable and uniform dual-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express, Vol. 13, 142-147, 2006.

    26. Han, Y.-G., T. V. A. Tran, and A. B. Lee, "Wavelength-spacing tunable multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett., Vol. 31, 697-699, 2006.

    27. Chen, D., "Stable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a photonic crystal fiber Sagnac loop filter," Laser Phys. Lett., Vol. 4, 437-439, 2007.

    28. Qin, S., D. Chen, Y. Tang, and S. He, "Stable and uniform multi-wavelength fiber laser based on hybrid Raman and Erbium-doped fiber gains," Opt. Express, Vol. 14, 10522-10527, 2006.

    29. Yamishita, S. and T. Baba, "Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser," Electron. Lett., Vol. 37, 1015-1517, 2001.

    30. De Matos, C. J. S., D. A. Chestnut, P. C. Reeves-Hall, F. Koch, and J. R. Taylor, "Multi-wavelength, continuous wave fibre Raman ring laser operating at 1.55 μm," Electron. Lett., Vol. 37, 825-826, 2001.

    31. Han, Y.-G., C.-S. Kim, J. U. Kand, U.-C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Multiwavelength Raman fiber-ring laser based on tunable cascaded logn-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 15, 383-385, 2003.

    32. Dong, X. Y., P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, "Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing," Opt. Express, Vol. 14, 3288-3293, 2006.

    33. Chen, D., S. Qin, L. Shen, H. Chi, and S. He, "An all-fiber multi-wavelength raman laser based on a PCF sagnac loop filter," Microw. and Opt. Techn. Lett., Vol. 48, 2416-2418, 2006.

    34. Cowle, G. J. and D. Y. Stepanov, "Multiple wavelength generation with Brillouin/erbium fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 8, 1465-1467, 1996.

    35. Bumki, M., P. Kim, and N. Park, "Flat amplitude equal spacing 798-channel Rayleigh-assisted Brillouin/Raman multiwavelength comb generation in dispersion compensating fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 13, 1352-1354, 2001.

    36. Ahmad, H., M. Z. Zulkifli, S. F. Norizan, A. A. Latif, and S. W. Harun, "Controllable wavelength channels for multiwavelength Brillouin Bismuth/Erbium based fiber laser," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 9, 9-18, 2009.

    37. Qureshi, K. K., H. Y. Tam, W. H. Chung, and P. K. A. Wai, "Multiwavelength laser source using linear optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 17, 1611-1613, 2005.

    38. Lee, Y. W., J. Jung, and B. Lee, "Multiwavelength-switchable SOA-fiber ring laser based on polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror and polarization beam splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 16, 54-56, 2004.

    39. Liu, D., N. Q. Ngo, H. Liu, and D. Liu, "Stable multiwavelength fiber ring laser with equalized power spectrum based on a semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Commun., Vol. 282, 1598-1601, 2009.

    40. Zhang, Z., W. Jian, K. Xu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, "Tunable multiwavelength SOA fiber laser with ultra-narrow wavelength spacing based on nonlinear polarization rotation," Opt. Express, Vol. 17, 17200-17205, 2009.

    41. Pan, S. L., C. Y. Lou, and Y. Z. Gao, "Multiwavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on inhomogeneous loss mechanism by use of a highly nonlinear fiber and a Fabry-Perot filter," Opt. Express, Vol. 14, 1113-1118, 2006.

    42. Marhid, M. E., K. K.-Y. Wong, G. Kalogerakis, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Toward practical fiber optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators," Optics & Photonics News, 21-25, 2004.

    43. Ho, M., K. Uesaka, Y. Akasaka, and L. G. Kazovsky, "200-nm-bandwidth fiber optical amplifier combing parametric and Raman gain," J. Lightwave Technol., Vol. 19, 977-981, 2001.

    44. Wong, K. K.-Y., K. Shimizu, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric amplifier with 60-dB gain using a novel two segment design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 15, 1707-1709, 2003.

    45. Gao, M., C. Jiang, W. Hu, and J. Wang, "Optimized design of two-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier with two-section nonlinear fibers using genetic algorithm," Opt. Express, Vol. 12, 5603-5613, 2004.

    46. Dahan, D. and G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Express, Vol. 13, 6234-6249, 2005.

    47. Torounidis, T., P. A. Andrekson, and B. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 18, 1194-1196, 2006.

    48. Wong, K. K. Y., G. Lu, and L. Chen, "Polarization-interleaved WDM signals in a fiber optical parametric amplifier with orthogonal pumps," Opt. Express, Vol. 15, 56-61, 2007.

    49. Singh, S. P., R. Gangwar, and N. Singh, "Nonlinear scattering effects in optical fibers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 74, 379-405, 2007.

    50. Andalib, A., A. Rostami, and N. Grangpayeh, "Analytical investigation and evaluation of pulse broadening factor propagating through nonlinear optical ¯bers (traditional and optimum dispersion compensated fibers)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 119-136, 2008.

    51. Lasri, J., P. Devgan, R. Tang, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "A microstructure-fiber-based 10-GHz synchronized tunable optical parametric oscillator in the 1550-nm region," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 15, 1058-1060, 2003.

    52. De Matos, C. J. S., J. R. Taylor, and K. P. Hansen, "Continouswave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett., Vol. 29, 983-985, 2004.

    53. Zhou, Y., K. K. Y. Cheung, S. Yang, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, "Widely tunable picosecond optical parametric oscillator using highly nonlinear fiber," Opt. Lett., Vol. 34, 989-992, 2009.

    54. Sharping, J. E., J. R. Sanborn, M. A. Foster, D. Broaddus, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of sub-100-fs pulses from a microstructure-fiber-based optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express, Vol. 16, 18050-18056, 2008.

    55. Sharping, J. E., C. Pailo, C. Gu, L. Kiani, and J. R. Sanborn, "Microstructure fiber optical parametric oscillator with femtosecond output in the 1200 to 1350 nm wavelength range," Opt. Express, Vol. 18, 3911-3916, 2010.

    56. Zhuang, W. Z., W. C. Huang, Y. P. Huang, K. W. Su, and Y. F. Chen, "Passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser and intracavity optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express, Vol. 18, 8969-8975, 2010.

    57. Wong, G. K. L., S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, and V. Marie, "High-conversion-efficiency widely-tunable all-fiber optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express, Vol. 15, 2947-2952, 2007.

    58. Xu, Y. Q., S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, and J. D. Harvey, "Widely tunable photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Perot optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett., Vol. 33, 1351-1353, 2008.

    59. Xu, Y. Q., S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, and J. D. Harvey, "Raman-assisted continuous-wave tunable all-fiber optical parametric oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 26, 1351-1356, 2009.

    60. Yang, S., X. Xu, Y. Zhou, K. K. Y. Cheung, and K. K. Y. Wong, "Continuous-wave single-longitudinal-mode fiber-optical parametric oscillator with reduced pump threshold," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 21, 1870-1872, 2009.

    61. Luo, Z., W. D. Zhong, Z. Cai, C. Ye, H. Xu, X. Dong, and L. Xia, "Multiwavelength fiber optical parametric oscillator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., Vol. 21, 1609-1611, 2009.

    62. Kim, D. H. and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express, Vol. 12, 4490-4495, 2004.