The Polar Format Algorithm (PFA) is suitable for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image focusing either in monostatic or bistatic cases. The classic linear-trajectory PFA complete data correction in wavenumber domain, converting data from the polar format to the rectangular format. However, the two-dimension processing (either using interpolation or chirp-z transform) introduces heavy computational load, which limits its real-time applications. This study presents a conical-trajectory PFA for bistatic SAR, in which the transmitter and receiver are designed to fly on conical surfaces, to simplify image formation procedures via eliminating the necessity of range processing. Moreover, the conical-trajectory PFA provides a space-invariant range resolution to simplify the SAR image comprehension. A spotlight forward-looking bistatic missile guidance application was simulated for the algorithm validation and performance analysis.
2. Lou, J., T. Jin, and Z. Zhou, "Feature extraction for landmine detection in UWB SAR via SWD and isomap," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 138, 157-171, 2013.
3. Yang, W., J. Chen, H. Zeng, J. Zhou, P. Wang, and C.-S. Li, "A novel three-step image formation scheme for unified focusing on spaceborne SAR data," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 137, 621-642, 2013.
4. Raucoules, D. and M. de Michele, "Assessing ionoshperic influence on L-band SAR data implications on coseismic displacement measurements of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 7, No. 2, 286-290, Apr. 2010.
5. Dellepiane, S. G. and E. Angiati, "A new method for cross-normalization and multitemporal visualization of SAR images for the detection of flooded areas," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 50, No. 7, 2765-2779, Jul. 2012.
6. Srivastava, H. S., P. Patel, Y. Sharma, and R. R. Navalgund, "Large-area soil moisture estimation using multi-incidence-angle RADARSAT-1 SAR data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 47, No. 8, 2528-2535, Aug. 2009.
7. Singh, D. and A. Kathpalia, "An efficient modeling with GA approach to retrieve soil texture, moisture and roughness from ERS-2 SAR data," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 121-136, 2007.
8. Tian, B., D.-Y. Zhu, and Z.-D. Zhu, "A novel moving target detection approach for dual-channel SAR system," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 191-206, 2011.
9. Mao, X., D.-Y. Zhu, L. Ding, and Z.-D. Zhu, "Comparative study of RMA and PFA on their responses to moving target," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 110, 103-124, 2010.
10. Xu, H., J. Gao, and J. Li, "A variable prf imaging method for high squint diving SAR," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 135, 215-229, 2013.
11. Liu, Q., W. Hong, W. Tan, Y. Lin, Y. Wang, and Y. Wu, "An improved polar format algorithm with performance analysis for geosynchronous circular SAR 2D imaging," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 119, 155-170, 2011.
12. Wang, Y., Y. J. Li, J. Chen, H. Xu, and B. Sun, "A novel non-interpolation polar format algorithm using non-lineal flight trajectories and auto-adaptive PRF technique," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 122, 155-173, 2012.
13. Rigling, B. D., "Polar format algorithm for bistatic SAR," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., Vol. 40, No. 4, 1147-1159, Oct. 2004.
14. Wang, Y., J. W. Li, J. Chen, H. P. Xu, and B. Sun, "A new trajectory-based polar format algorithm for bistatic SAR," IEEE IGARSS, 319-322, 2012.
15. Tang, Y., M.-D. Xing, and Z. Bao, "The polar format imaging algorithm based on double chirp-z transforms," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., Vol. 5, No. 4, 610-614, Oct. 2008.
16. Moccia, A. and A. Renga, "Spatial resolution of bistatic synthetic aperture radar: Impact of acquisition geometry on imaging performance," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 49, No. 10, 3487-3503, Oct. 2011.