We aim to estimate the average dielectric properties of centimeter-scale volumes of biological tissues. A variety of approaches to measurement of dielectric properties of materials at microwave frequencies have been demonstrated in the literature and in practice. However, existing methods are not suitable for noninvasive measurement of in vivo biological tissues due to high property contrast with air, and the need to conform with the shape of the human body. To overcome this, a method of antenna calibration has been adapted and developed for use with an antenna system designed for biomedical applications, allowing for the estimation of permittivity and conductivity. This technique requires only two calibration procedures and does not require any special manufactured components. Simulated and measured results are presented between 3 to 8 GHz for materials with properties expected in biological tissues. Error bounds and an analysis of sources of error are provided.
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