In antenna design, the low side lobe level (SLL) of the antenna radiation pattern plays a crucial role in communication systems as it reduces signal interference along the entire side lobes of the radiation pattern. This paper presents an effective technique to minimize the SLL and thus improve the radiation pattern of the concentric circular antenna array (CCAA) using an advanced marine predator algorithm (AMPA). The AMPA is inspired by the predator-prey relationship in aquatic ecosystems, and it incorporates an improved adaptive velocity update strategy and a chaotic sequence parameter. In this work, the AMPA is applied to synthesize two examples of CCAA (4, 6, 8-CCAA elements and 8, 10, 12-CCAA elements) under two different instances (without and with a centre element). The simulation results achieved a significant improvement in SLL minimization as compared to the uniform array, the standard marine predator algorithm (MPA), and some other nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms.
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