A planar inverted F antenna is combined with passive (reactively loaded) elements in order to implement a multi-frequency configuration appropriate for biomedical applications in microwave frequencies. A case study of an electronically Reconfigurable PIFA (R-PIFA) is pursued for the detection of temperature abnormalities in human tissue phantom using microwave radiometry, where the performance of the structure is optimized with respect to input impedance matching in multiple frequencies. The optimization of the array is performed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) tool as a method of choice. Due to its limited physical size, the proposed R-PIFA can also be used as a portable antenna system for deployment in mobile medical applications.
2. Leroy, Y., Leroy, Y., A. Mamouni, J. V. D. Velde, B. Bocquet, and B. Dujardin, "Microwave radiometry for non-invasive thermometry," Automedica, Vol. 8, 181-202, 1987.
3. El-Sharkawy, A. M., El-Sharkawy, A. M., P. P. Sotiriadis, P. A. Bottomley, and E. Atalar, "A new RF radiometer for absolute noninvasive temperature sensing in biomedical applications," IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2007 , 329-332, 2007.
4. Curto, S., P. McEvoy, X. L. Bao, and M. J. Ammann, "Compact patch antenna for electromagnetic interaction with human tissue at 434 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 9, 2009.
5. Ohira, T. and K. Gyoda, "Electronically steerable passive array radiator antennas for low-cost analog adaptive beamforming," Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Phased Array Systems and Technology , 101-104, 2000 .
6. Bialkowski, M. E., Y. F. Wang, and A. Abbosh, "UWB microwave monopulse radar system for breast cancer detection," 4th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS), 1-4, 2010.
7. Bardati, F. and S. Iudicello, "Modeling the visibility of breast malignancy by a microwave radiometer ," IEEE Trans. on Biomed. Eng., Vol. 55, No. 1, 214-221, 2008.
8. Iudicello, S. and F. Bardati, "Visibility of breast malignancy in compressed breast by microwave radiometry," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, AP-S 2008, 1, 2008.
9. Sun, C., A. Hirata, T. Ohira, and N. C. Karmakar, "Fast beamforming of electronically steerable passive array radiator antennas: Theory and experiment ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 7, 1819-1831, 2004.
10. Yang, K. and T. Ohira, "Realization of space-time adaptive ¯ltering by employing electronically steerable passive array radiator antennas ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 7, 1476-1485, 2003.
11. Plapous, C., J. Cheng, E. Taillefer, A. Hirata, and T. Ohira, "Reactance domain MUSIC algorithm for electronically steerable parasitic array radiator ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 12, 3257-3264, 2004.
12. Liang, J. and H. Y. D. Yang, "Varactor loaded tunable printed PIFA," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 15, 113-131, 2009.
13. Panagiotou, S. C., N. K. Kouveliotis, T. D. Dimousios, P. K. Varlamos, S. A. Mtilineos, and C. N. Capsalis, "A PIFA parasitic optimization utilizing the genetic algorithms technique," parasitic optimization utilizing the genetic algorithms techniqu, 1-5, 2006.
14., "SuperNec v. 2.4 MOM technical reference manual,".
doi:SuperNec v. 2.4 MOM technical reference manual
15. Fourie, A. and D. Nitch, "SuperNEC: Antenna and indoor-propagation simulation program," IEEE Antennas and Propagat. Mag., Vol. 42, No. 3, 31-48, 2000.
16. Goldberg, D. E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1989.
17. Rahmat-Samii, Y. and E. Michielssen, "Electromagnetic Optimiza-tion by Genetic Algorithms," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
18. Dimousios, T. D., S. A. Mitilineos, S. C. Panagiotou, and C. N. Capsalis, "Design of a corner-reflector reactively controlled antenna for maximum directivity and multiple beam forming at 2.4 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1132-1139, 2011.