Studies have been reported in the literature on High Frequency (HF) radio channels in mid-latitude areas more frequently than in low-latitude areas. Ionosphere as a reflector of HF radio waves in low-latitude areas might behave differently from that in mid-latitude. This paper reports a statistical model of sky wave HF channel complex impulse response and its parameters, such as channel gain, path gain, phase shift, and delay spread statistics, derived from both simulation and measurement of a 3044 km link in Indonesia. From the evaluations it can be concluded that the multipaths observed with respect to their propagation delays form multiple clusters corresponding to their propagation modes. The channel gain is found to follow Rayleigh distribution, whereas the rms and maximum delay spread exhibit Rayleigh and Gaussian distributions, respectively. This model can be used in performance evaluation of digital communication schemes in low-latitude HF channels.
2. McNamara, L., The Ionosphere: Communications, Surveillance and Direction Finding, Krieger, Florida, 1991.
3. Watterson, C. C., J. R. Juroshek, and W. D. Bensema, "Experimental confirmation of an HF channel model," IEEE Trans. on Communication Technology, Vol. 18, No. 6, 792, 1970.
4. Mastrangelo, J. F., et al., "A new wideband high frequency channel simulation system," IEEE Trans. on Communications, Vol. 45, No. 1, 26, 1997.
5. Perry, B. and R. Rifkin, "Measured wideband HF mid latitude channel characteristic," IEEE Military Communication Conference, Boston, 1989.
6. Clune, M. and P. Fine, "Delay and doppler spreading characteristics of the wide-bandwidth HF channel," Fifth International Conf. on HF Radio Systems and Technique, Edinburg, 1991.
7. Yan, Z., L. Zhang, T. Rahman, and D. Su, "Prediction of the HF ionospheric channel stability based on the modified ITS model," IEEE Trans. on Antenna and Propagation, Vol. 16, No. 6, 3321, 2013.
8. Cannon, P. and M. J. Angling, "Measurements of the HF channel scattering function over Thailand," Proc. International Antenna and Propagation Conf., Davos, 2000.
9. Rappaport, T., Wireless Communications, 160, Prentice-Hall, New York, 2002.
10. Lacaze, B., "Modeling the HF channel with Gaussian random delays," Signal Processing, Vol. 64, 215, 1997.
11. Solar Terestrial Dispatch, , Proplab-Pro Version 3, 2010.
12. Mitran, R. and M. Stanic, "Delay spread evaluation of HF channels based on ray tracing," 2016 IEEE International Black Sea Conf. on Communication and Networking (BlackSeaComm), Varna, 2016.
13. Australian Government Beaureu of Meteorology, Monthly Sunspot Number, [Online], Available: www.sws.bom.gov.au/Solar/1/6.
14. Jones, R. and J. Stephenson, Versatile Three Dimensional Ray Tracing Computer Program for Radio Wave in the Ionosphere, US Gov. Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1975.
15. Williams, E., Aviation Formulary V1.43, [Online] Available: williams.best.vwh.net/avform.html, 2007.
16. Kurniawati, I., P. H. Mukti, R. Corputty, and G. Hendrantoro, "Preliminary study on HF channel complex impulse response and power delay," XXXI URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium, Beijing, 2014.
17. International Telecommunication Union, Radio Regulations Articles, ITU, 2016.
18. Sousa, E., V. Jovanovic, and C. Daigneault, "Delay spread measurement for the digital cellular channel," IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 43, No. 4, 837, 1994.
19. Hashemi, H., "Impulse response modelling of indoor radio propagation channels," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 11, No. 7, 967, 1993.
20. Dixon, W. J., J. Frank, and J. Massey, Introduction to Statistical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.