Aiming at the problems of low gain, low efficiency at lower frequency and warping in pattern at higher frequency of 10-meter high frequency (HF) whip antenna, the whip antenna is loaded and matched with the network in different bands using Grasshopper Optimization Algorithms (GOA) and antenna reconfiguration technology, so a new frequency reconfigurable broadband whip antenna is designed in this paper. According to the electrical characteristics of 10-meter HF whip antenna, this paper divides short wave frequency into three bands and designs its radiation structure, loading, and matching network for each band of antenna, respectively. GOA is introduced into the research and design of antenna to optimize the component parameters of loading network and matching network. The results show that the antenna in lower frequency band can be improved at most, the maximum gain growth up to 5.8 dB (from -10.3 dB to -4.5 dB) and the maximum efficiency growth up to 8.5% (from 3% to 11.5%); the gain and efficiency in high frequency band are greatly improved too, and the phenomenon of warping in the pattern is effectively avoided.
2. Rodriguez, J. L., et al., "Broadband HF antenna matching network design using a real-coded genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 3, 611-618, 2007.
3. Marrocco, G. and L. Mattioni, "Naval structural antenna systems for broadband HF communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 4, 1065-1073, 2006.
4. Jagannath, T., P. P. Kulkarni, and V. M. Tyagi, "HF broadband antenna design considerations on warships," International Conference on Electromagnetic Interference & Compatibility, 2002.
5. Liu, C., et al., "Design of broadband shipboard whip-type antenna at high frequency band," Chinese Journal of Radio Science, Vol. 21, No. 6, 955-957, 2006.
6. Spall, J. C., Introduction to Stochastic Search and Optimization: Estimation, Simulation, and Control, Vol. 65, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
7. Dasgupta, D. and Z. Michalewicz, Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Applications, Springer, 1997.
8. Yang, X.-S., Nature-inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms, Luniver Press, 2010.
9. Boussaıd, I., J. Lepagnot, and P. Siarry, "A survey on optimization metaheuristics," Inf. Sci., Vol. 237, 82-117, 2013.
10. Gogna, A. and A. Tayal, "Metaheuristics: Review and application," J. Exp. Theor. Artif. Intel., Vol. 25, 03-26, 2013.
11. Zhou, A., Q. Zhang, and G. Zhang, "A multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition and probability model," 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 1-8, 2012.
12. Saremi, S., S. Mirjalili, and A. Lewis, "Grasshopper optimisation algorithm: Theory and application," Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 105, 30-47, 2017.
13. Mirjalili, S. Z., et al., "Grasshopper optimization algorithm for multiobjective optimization problems," Applied Intelligence, Vol. 3, 1-16, 2017.
14. Wang, H.-F., C. Liu, and H.-N. Wu, "HF wideband whip antenna optimization based on invasive weed optimization algorithm," Radio Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 11, 63-67, 2016.
15. Wang, H.-F., C. Liu, and H.-N. Wu, "Design of a frequency reconfigurable shortwave broadband Whip antenna," Journal of Naval Uniwersity of Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 01, 41-45, 2019.
16. Haupt, R. L. and M. Lanagan, "Reconfigurable antennas," IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 1, 49-61, 2013.
17. Bernhard, J. T., "Reconfigurable antennas," Synthesis Lectures on Antennas, Vol. 2, No. 1, 66 Pages, 2007.
18. Weedon, W. H., W. J. Payne, and G. M. Rebeiz, "MEMS-switched reconfigurable antennas," Antennas & Propagation Society International Symposium, Vol. 3, 2001.
19. Yang, S., et al., "Frequency-reconfigurable antennas for multi-radio wireless platforms," Microwave Magazine IEEE, Vol. 10, No. 1, 66-83, 2009.