Vol. 169

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Designer Surface Plasmons Enable Terahertz Cherenkov Radiation (Invited)

By Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Hu, Hongsheng Chen, and Fei Gao
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 169, 25-32, 2020


Cherenkov radiation (CR) is a promising method to generate high-power terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) waves, which are highly desired in numerous practical applications. For the purpose of economy energy, naturally occurred materials with flat surface (e.g. graphene), which can support highly-confined surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) modes, have been proposed to construct high-efficiency terahertz CR source; however, these emerging materials cannot be easily fabricated nor flexibly designed. Here, we propose a designer-SPP metamaterial scheme to pursue terahertz CR. The metamaterial is a structure-decorated metal surface, which is compatible with planar fabrication, and can support SPP-like EM modes in terahertz frequencies, also named as designer SPP. Due to the structure dependence of designer SPP, its dispersions can be flexibly designed by changing the structure geometries as well as choosing proper dielectric medias. Numerical results clearly demonstrated this scheme. Our proposal may promise future high-efficiency and intense THz source with design flexibilities.


Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Hu, Hongsheng Chen, and Fei Gao, "Designer Surface Plasmons Enable Terahertz Cherenkov Radiation (Invited)," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 169, 25-32, 2020.


    1. Siegel, P. H., "Terahertz technology," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 50, No. 3, 910-928, 2002.

    2. Tonouchi, M., "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nature Photonics, Vol. 1, No. 2, 97-105, 2007.

    3. Horiuchi, N., "Endless applications," Nature Photonics, Vol. 4, No. 3, 140-140, 2010.

    4. Akyildiz, I. F., J. M. Jornet, and C. Han, "Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications," Physical Communication, Vol. 12, 16-32, 2014.

    5. Hafez, H. A., et al., "Intense terahertz radiation and their applications," Journal of Optics, Vol. 18, No. 9, 093004, 2016.

    6. Wu, X. L., et al., "Green light stimulates terahertz emission from mesocrystal microspheres," Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 103-106, 2011.

    7. Carr, G. L., et al., "High-power terahertz radiation from relativistic electrons," Nature, Vol. 420, No. 6912, 153-156, 2002.

    8. Gong, Y., et al., "Some advances in theory and experiment of high-frequency vacuum electron devices in China," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 47, No. 5, 1971-1990, 2019.

    9. Cherenkov, P. A., "Visible emission of clean liquids by action of γ radiation," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Vol. 2, No. 8, 451-454, 1934.

    10. Bolotovskii, B. M., "Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation: Its discovery and application," Physics-Uspekhi, Vol. 179, No. 11, 1161-1173, 2009.

    11. Pan, P., et al., "Development of 220 GHz and 340 GHz TWTs," 2016 IEEE 9th UK-Europe-China Workshopon Millimetre Waves and Terahertz Technologies (UCMMT), IEEE, 2016.

    12. Hou, Y., et al., "A novel ridge-vane-loaded folded-waveguide slow-wave structure for 0.22-THz traveling-wave tube," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1228-1235, 2013.

    13. Pacey, T. H., et al., "Continuously tunable narrow-band terahertz generation with a dielectric lined waveguide driven by short electron bunches," Physical Review Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 22, No. 9, 091302, 2019.

    14. Cook, A. M., et al., "Observation of narrow-band terahertz coherent Cherenkov radiation from a cylindrical dielectric-lined waveguide," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 103, No. 9, 095003, 2009.

    15. Antipov, S., et al., "Experimental observation of energy modulation in electron beams passing through terahertz dielectric wakefield structures," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, No. 14, 144801, 2012.

    16. Maier, S. A., Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer Science & Business Media, 2007.

    17. Liu, S., et al., "Surface polariton Cherenkov light radiation source," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 109, No. 15, 153902, 2012.

    18. Burlak, G., et al., "Plasmon-polariton oscillations in three-dimensional disordered nanotubes excited by a moving charge," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 126, No. 1, 013101, 2019.

    19. Liu, F., et al., "Integrated Cherenkov radiation emitter eliminating the electron velocity threshold," Nature Photonics, Vol. 11, No. 5, 289-292, 2017.

    20. Burlak, G., "Spectrum of Cherenkov radiation in dispersive metamaterials with negative refraction index," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 132, 149-158, 2012.

    21. Shi, X., et al., "Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle," Physical Review B, Vol. 92, No. 8, 081404.1-081404.5, 2015.

    22. Liu, S., et al., "Coherent and tunable terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, No. 20, 109, 2014.

    23. Gong, S., et al., "Transformation of surface plasmon polaritons to radiation in graphene in terahertz regime," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 106, No. 22, 223107, 2015.

    24. Zhao, T., et al., "Coherent and tunable terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by cyclotron electron beam," Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, 16059, 2015.

    25. Zhao, T., et al., "Cherenkov terahertz radiation from graphene surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 110, No. 23, 666-200, 2017.

    26. Zhao, T., et al., "Terahertz generation from Dirac semimetals surface plasmon polaritons excited by an electron beam," 2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2018), 2018.

    27. Pendry, J. B., L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science, Vol. 305, No. 5685, 847-848, 2004.

    28. Garcia-Vidal, F. J., L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials," Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, Vol. 7, No. 2, S97, 2005.

    29. Hibbins, A. P., B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science, Vol. 308, No. 5722, 670-672, 2005.

    30. Gao, Z., et al., "Spoof plasmonics: From metamaterial concept to topological description," Advanced Materials, Vol. 30, No. 31, 1706683, 2018.

    31. Liu, L., L. Ran, H. Guo, X. Chen, and Z. Li, "Broadband plasmonic circuitry enabled by channel domino spoof plasmons," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 164, 109-118, 2019.

    32. Yu, N., et al., "Designer spoof surface plasmon structures collimate terahertz laser beams," Nature Materials, Vol. 9, No. 9, 730-735, 2010.

    33. Cakmakyapan, S., et al., "Spoof-plasmon relevant one-way collimation and multiplexing at beaming from a slit in metallic grating," Optics Express, Vol. 20, No. 24, 26636-26648, 2012.

    34. Gao, X. and T. J. Cui, "Spoof surface plasmon polaritons supported by ultrathin corrugated metal strip and their applications," Nanotechnology Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 3, 239-258, 2015.

    35. Geng, Y. F., et al., "Topological surface plasmon polaritons," Acta PhysicaSinica, Vol. 68, No. 22, 224101, 2019.

    36. Zhu, J. F., et al., "Regenerated amplification of terahertz spoof surface plasmon radiation," New Journal of Physics, Vol. 21, No. 3, 033021, 2019.

    37. Liu, Y. Q., C. H. Du, and P. K. Liu, "Terahertz electronic source based on spoof surface plasmons on the doubly corrugated metallic waveguide," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 44, No. 12, 3288-3294, 2016.

    38. Liu, Y. Q., et al., "A terahertz electronic source based on the spoof surface plasmon with subwavelength metallic grating," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 44, No. 6, 930-937, 2016.

    39. Zhu, J. F., et al., "Free-electron-driven beam-scanning terahertz radiation," Optics Express, Vol. 27, No. 18, 26192-26202, 2019.

    40. Zhu, J. F., et al., "Free-electron-driven multi-frequency terahertz radiation on a super-grating structure," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 181184-181190, 2019.

    41. Zhou, Y., et al., "Coherent terahertz radiation generated from a square-shaped free-electron beam passing through multiple stacked layers with sub-wavelength holes," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 48, No. 34, 345102, 2015.

    42. Liu, S., et al., "Electromagnetic diffraction radiation of a subwavelength-hole array excited by an electron beam," Physical Review E, Vol. 80, No. 3, 036602, 2009.

    43. Kong, J. A., Electromagnetic Waves Theory, EMW Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 2008.