The dispersion relation is derived for the most general configuration of a passive and reciprocal periodically loaded transmission line in a unique and simple form by introducing two novel parameters. Based on this relation, the phase and group velocities are determined and a simple condition for phase reversal propagation is obtained. The two above mentioned parameters help us to develop a polar diagram to model the behavior of any two-port network as a function of frequency. By this diagram, we can determine the direction of the phase velocity and also the value of the propagation constant. Then, symmetrical cells and thereof the periodic structures composed of them are analyzed. For such structures, it will be shown that the dispersion relation can be rewritten in a form similar to the Lorentz transformation. We design and analyze a bandstop filter to verify the method.
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