Vol. 47

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Design Bluetooth and Notched-UWB E-Shape Antenna Using Optimization Techniques

By Ahmed Mohamed Montaser, Korany Mahmoud, Adel B. Abdel-Rahman, and Hamdy A. Elmikati
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 47, 279-295, 2013


In this article, an optimized E-shaped patch antenna for Bluetooth (2.4-2.484 GHz) and UWB (3.1-10.6 GHz) applications with WLAN (5.15-5.825 GHz) band-notched characteristics is proposed. The dimensions of the E-shaped antenna structure in addition to the position of the slotted C-shape in the ground plane are optimized using recent optimization techniques such as Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO), Bacterial Swarm Optimization (BSO), and Central Force Optimization (CFO). The optimization algorithms were implemented using MATLAB-software and linked to the CST Microwave Studio to simulate the antenna. Next, the effects of the Laptop structure on the antenna radiation characteristics are considered. Finally, the antenna structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) to validate the results. The measured results exhibit good agreement with the simulation from CST and the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) program written with matlab.


Ahmed Mohamed Montaser, Korany Mahmoud, Adel B. Abdel-Rahman, and Hamdy A. Elmikati, "Design Bluetooth and Notched-UWB E-Shape Antenna Using Optimization Techniques," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 47, 279-295, 2013.


    1. Federal Communications Commission, First report and order on ultra-wideband technology, FCC 02-48, Washington, DC, Apr. 22, 2002.

    2. Allen, B., M. Dohler, E. E. Okon, W. Q. Malik, A. K. Brown, and D. J. Edwards, Ultra-wideband Antennas and Propagation or Wireless Communications, Radar and Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2007.

    3. Kwon, D. H. and Y. Kim, CPW-fed planar ultrawideband antenna with hexagonal radiating elements, Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Antennas Propagation, Vol. 3, 2947-2950, Jun. 2004.

    4. Abbosh, A. and M. Bialkowski, "Design of ultra wideband planar monopole antennas of circular and elliptical shape," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, 17-23, 2008.

    5. Lin, C.-C. and H.-R. Chuang, "A 3-12 GHz UWB planar triangular monopole antenna with ridged ground-plane," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 83, 307-321, 2008.

    6. Fattah, M. A. A., A. M. M. A. Allam, and S. I. Shams, Irregular pentagon monopole structured antenna for ultra-wideband communication systems, 2010 IEEE Middle East Conference on Antennas and Propagation (MECAP), 1-4, Cairo, Oct. 20-22, 2010.

    7. Hayouni, M., F. Choubani, M. Denden, T. H. Vuong, and J. David, A novel compact ultra-wideband rectangular shaped antenna, PIERS Proceedings, 381-385.

    8. Yang, F., X.-X. Zhang, X. Ye, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Wide-band E-shaped patch antennas for wireless communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 49, No. 7, 1275-1279, Jul. 2001.

    9. Ge, Y., K. P. Esselle, and T. S. Bird, "E-shaped patch antennas for high-speed wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, No. 12, 1094-1100, Dec. 2004.

    10. Khidre, A., K. F. Lee, F. Yang, and A. Eisherbeni, "Wideband circularly polarized e-shaped patch antenna for wireless applications," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 219-229, Oct. 2010.

    11. Ali, J. K. and A. S. Hussain, A new miniaturized E-shaped printed monopole antenna for UWB applications, PIERS Proceedings, 1273-1276, Suzhou, China, Sep. 12-16, 2011.

    12. He, W., R. Jin, and J. Geng, "E-shape patch with wideband and circular polarization for millimeter-wave communication," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 3, Mar. 2008.

    13. Kim, Y. and D.-H. Kwon, "CPW-fed planar ultra wideband antenna having a frequency band notch function," Electronics Letters, Vol. 7, 403-405, Apr. 2004.

    14. Zhou, H.-I., B.-H. Sun, Q.-Z. Liu, and J.-Y. Deng, "Implementation and investigation of U-shaped aperture UWB antenna with dual bandnotched characteristics," Electronics Letters, Vol. 44, No. 24, 1387-1388, Nov. 2008.

    15. Ojaroudi, M., C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, "Small square monopole antenna with inverted T-shaped notch in the ground plane for UWB application," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 728-731, 2009.

    16. Zaker, R., C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, "Bandwidth enhancement of novel compact single and dual band-notched printed monopole antenna with a pair of L-shaped slots ," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 57, No. 12, 3978-3983, Dec. 2009.

    17. Kim, C., H. Ahn, J. Kim, X. Cheng, and Y.-K. Yoon, A compact 5 GHz WLAN notched Bluetooth/UWB antenna, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 1-4, Toronto, Jul. 11-17, 2010.

    18. Mishra, S. K., R. Gupta, A. Vaidya, and J. Mukherjee, "Printed fork shaped dual band monopole antenna for Bluetooth and UWB applications with 5.5 GHz WLAN notched characteristics," Progress In Electromagnetic Research C, Vol. 22, 195-210, 2011.

    19. Yildirim, B. S., B. A. Cetiner, G. Roqueta, and L. Jofre, "Integrated Bluetooth and UWB antenna," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 149-152, 2009.

    20. Ito, K. and T. Hosoe, Study on the characteristics of planar inverted F antenna mounted in laptop computers for wireless LAN, Proc. IEEE Ant. and Prop. Society Int. Symposium, Vol. 2, 22-25, Columbus, Ohio, USA, Jul. 2003.

    21. Liu, D., B. P. Gaucher, E. B. Flint, T. W. Studwell, H. Usui, and T. J. Beukema, "Developing integrated antenna subsystems for laptop computers," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 47, No. 2-3, 355-367, March/May 2003.

    22. Huff, G. H., J. Feng, S. Zhang, G. Cung, and J. T. Bernhard, "Directional reconfigurable antennas on laptop computers: Simulation, measurement and evaluation of candidate integration positions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 52, No. 12, 3220-3227, Dec. 2004.

    23. Guterman, J., A. A. Moreira, and C. Peixeiro, "Laptop structure effects on an integrated omnidirectional wrapped microstrip antenna," International Conference on Microwaves, Radar & Wireless Communications, MIKON 2006, 1003-1006, May 22-24, 2006.

    24. Montaser, A. M., K. R. Mahmoud, and H. A. Elmikati, "An interaction study between PIFAs handset antenna and a human hand-head in personal communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 37, 21-42, 2012.

    25. Kennedy, J. and R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," IEEE International Conferenceon Neural Networks, Vol. 4, 1942-1948, Perth, Australia, 1995.

    26. Mahmoud, K. R., M. El-Adawy, R. Bansal, S. H. Zainud-Deen, and S. M. M. Ibrahem, "MPSO-MOM: A hybrid modified particle swarm optimization and method of moment algorithm for smart antenna synthesis," Electromagnetics, 411-426, 2008.

    27. Passino, K. M., "Biomimicry of bacterial foraging," IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 22, 52-67, 2002.

    28. Biswas, A., S. Dasgupta, S. Das, and A. Abraham, Synergy of PSO and bacterial foraging optimization: A comparative study on numerical benchmarks, HAIS 2007: The Second International Symposium on Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems, 255-263, Salamanca, Spain, Nov. 2007.

    29. Mahmoud, K. R., "Design optimization of a bow-tie antenna for 2.45 GHz RFID readers using a hybrid BSO-NM algorithm," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 100, 105-117, 2010.

    30. Formato, R. A., "Central force optimization: A new metaheuristic with application in applied electromagnetics ," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 425-491, 2007.

    31. Mahmoud, K. R., "Central force optimization: Nelder-mead hybrid algorithm for rectangular microstrip antenna design," Electromagnetics, Vol. 31, No. 8, 578-592, 2011.

    32. Yee, K. S., "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 14, 302-307, May 1966.

    33. Taflove, A. and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-difference Time-domain Method, 3rd Ed., Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2005.