Vol. 67

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Topology Measurement of Substation's Grounding Grid by Using Electromagnetic and Derivative Method

By Aamir Qamar, Fan Yang, Wei He, Ammad Jadoon, Muhammad Zeeshan Khan, and Naidong Xu
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 67, 71-90, 2016


The topology of grounding grid is important for diagnosing its status, which plays a critical role in the safety of personnel and stable operation of power system. The electromagnetic field method and derivative of surface magnetic flux density on the line has been used to measure the branch position in case the grid is parallel to the plane of earth surface that in practice is unknown while the node points and connections were not discussed. This paper introduces a method that uses derivative of surface flux density on circles and lines in a systematic order to find the position of the grid in the plane of the earth surface and connecting the nodes to measure the full topology. This method even identifies any angled branch present in the mesh of a grid. Software simulations and experimental tests verify that the method is feasible and can be applied to identify the topology of a grounding grid.


Aamir Qamar, Fan Yang, Wei He, Ammad Jadoon, Muhammad Zeeshan Khan, and Naidong Xu, "Topology Measurement of Substation's Grounding Grid by Using Electromagnetic and Derivative Method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 67, 71-90, 2016.


    1. Zhang, X., T.-Z. Yu, and X. Yin, "The corrosion break-point diagnosis method of grounding grid based on the principle of uniting magnetic field and electric circuit," IEEE, 2010.

    2. Zhang, B., J. Wu, J. He, and R. Zeng, "Analysis of transient performance of grounding system considering soil ionization by time domain method," IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 49, 1837-1840, May 2013.

    3. Hideki, M., "Electromagnetic transient response of buried bare wire and ground grid," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 22, 1673-1679, Jul. 2007.

    4. IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding, IEEE Standard 80-2000,.

    5. Wang, S., J. Liu, J.Wang, Z. Li, and S.Wang, "Conductor corrosion fault detection & identification for grounding grids," The 3rd International Conference on Innovative Computing Information and Control, IEEE, 2008.

    6. Liu, Y., X. Cui, and Z. Zhao, "Corrosion diagnosis for grounding grids by using electromagnetic induction method," Automation Congress, WAC 2008 World, 2008.

    7. Dawalibi, F. P., "Electromagnetic fields generated by overhead and buried short conductors. Part 2 --- Ground conductor," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 1, 112-119, Oct. 1986.

    8. Yu, C., Z. Fu, X. Hou, H.-M. Tai, and X. Su, "Break point diagnosis of grounding grids using transient electromagnetic apparent resistivity imaging," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2015.

    9. Zhang, B., Z. Zhao, X. Cui, and L. Li, "Diagnosis of breaks in substation's grounding grid by using the electromagnetic method," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 38, No. 2, Mar. 2002.

    10. Cardarelli, E., M. Cercato, A. Cerreto, and G. Di Filippo, "Electrical resistivity and seismic refraction tomography to detect buried cavities," Geophys Prospect, Vol. 58, 685-695, 2010.

    11. Vincent, A., M. Charles, A. Willis, and M. Gerald, "Geophysical exploration of iron ore deposit in Kimachia area in Meru county in Kenya, using gravity and magnetic techniques," Int. J. Sci. Res. (IJSR), Vol. 2, 104-108, 2013.

    12. Buchanan, S. and J. Triantafilis, "Mapping water table depth using geophysical and environmental variables," Ground Water, Vol. 47, 80-96, 2009.

    13. Hedley, C. B., P. Roudier, I. J. Yule, J. Ekanayake, and S. Bradbury, "Soil water status and water table depth modelling using electromagnetic surveys for precision irrigation scheduling," Geoderma, Vol. 199, 22-29, 2013.

    14. Wang, X., C. Li, W. He, F. Yang, D. Yao, and X. Kou, "Topological measurement and characterization of substation grounding grid based on derivative method," International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, 2014.

    15. Wang, X., W. He, F. Yang, L. Zhu, and X. Liu, "Topology detection of grounding grids based on derivative method," Transactions of China, Feb. 2015.

    16. Yu, H. and X. Ying, "Derivative seismic processing method for GPR data," IEEE Int. Geosci. Rem. Sens., Vol. 1, 145-147, 1997.

    17. Liu, Q., "Sensitivity and Hessian matrix analysis of power spectral density functions for uniformly modulated evolutionary random seismic responses," Finite Elem. Anal. Des., Vol. 48, 1370-1375, 2012.

    18. Philipp, O. and J. Scherer, Computational Physics, Simulation of Classical and Quantum Systems, 2nd Ed., Springer, 2013.