GPS is well recognized as the best procedure for outdoor localization. However, it presents limits in indoor localization due to particular geometric difficulties that necessitate specific solution to locate a target inside a building. Also, radio frequency technologies have many disadvantages in indoor localization. Bluetooth and Radio frequency Identification (RFID) are unsuitable for real-time localization because of latency. Ultra-wideband (UWB) localization needs an expensive hardware. Zigbee presents a high interference with wide range of signal frequency because it operates in unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical ISM bands. Light waves also present some limitations due to interferencesfrom fluorescent light and sunlight. The IR based indoor system has expensive system hardware and maintenance cost. To overcome limits and non-availability of radio waves and light waves, an acoustic solution using an array of microphones is presented as a solution for indoor localization, and an optimized deployment is used to improve precision and restrain error. The aim of this work is to propose a 3D indoor audio localization approach inspired by the principle of functioning of the human ear. In order to achieve our goal, we will use a genetic algorithm to obtain the optimized deployment of the used hardware.
2. Pahlavan, K., X. Li, and J. P. Makela, "Indoor geolocation science and technology," IEEE Communications Magazine, 112-118, Feb. 2002.
3. Sfar, A. R., E. Natalizio, Y. Challal, and Z. Chtourou, "A roadmap for security challenges in the Internet of Things," Digital Communications and Networks, 1-20, 2017.
4. Vossiek, M., L. Wiebking, P. Gulden, J. Wiehardt, C. Hoffmann, and P. Heide, "Wireless local positioning," IEEE Microwave Mag., Vol. 4, No. 4, 77-86, Dec. 2003.
5. Wang, K., A. V. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, K. Alameh, H. Li, and E. Skafidas, "Indoor infrared optical wireless localization system with background light power estimation capability," Optics Express Journal, Vol. 25, No. 19, Sep. 18, 2017.
6. Kalayci, T. E. and A. Ugur, "Genetic algorithm-based sensor deployment with area priority," International Journal of Cybernetics and Systems, Vol. 42, No. 8, 605-620, 2011.
7. Kassarwani, N., J. Ohri, and A. Singh, "Design and performance of dynamic voltage restorer using genetic algorithm," International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 105, No. 1, 88-103, 2017.
8. Singh, S. P. and S. C. Sharma, "Genetic-Algorithm-Based Energy-Efficient Clustering (GAEEC) for homogenous wireless sensor networks," IETE Journal of Research, 1-12, 2017.
9. Richard, R. F. and N. P. Arthur, "Introduction to sound source localization," Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Vol. 25, Springer, New York, 2005.
10. Hightower, J. and G. Borriello, Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 34, No. 8, 57-66, IEEE Computer Society Press, 2001.
11. Casas, R., D. Cuartielles, A. Marco, H. J. Gracia, and J. L. Falc, "Hidden issues in deploying an indoor location system," IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 62-69, 2007.
12. Shimosaka, M., O. Saisho, T. Sunakawa, H. Koyasu, K. Maeda, and R. Kawajiri, "ZigBee based wireless indoor localization with sensor placement optimization towards practical home sensing," Journal of Advanced Robotics, Vol. 30, No. 5, Taylor & Francis, 2016.
13. Wang, F., X. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. Zhou, "Joint estimation of TOA and DOA in IR-UWB system using a successive propagator method," International Journal of Electronics, Vol. 102, No. 10, Taylor & Francis, 2015.
14. Shalaby, M., M. Shokair, and N. W. Messiha, "Performance enhancement of TOA localized wireless sensor networks," Springer Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 95, No. 4, 4667-4679, Aug. 2017.
15. Hayward, G. and Y. Gorfu, "A digital hardware correlation system for fast ultrasonic data acquisition in peak power limited applications," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 35, No. b, Nov. 1988.
16. Aznoli, F. and N. J. Navimipour, "Deployment strategies in the wireless sensor networks: Systematic literature review," Classification, and Current Trends, Springer Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 95, No. 2, 819-846, Jul. 2017.
17. Yaro, A. S., M. J. Musa, S. Sani1, and A. Abdulaziz, "3D position estimation performance evaluation of a hybrid two reference TOA/TDOA multilateration system using minimum configuration," International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 4, 96-102, 2016.
18. Chen, C., Y. Chen, H. Q. Lai, Y. Han, and K. J. R. Liu, "High accuracy indoor localization: A WiFi-based approach," IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2016.
19. Zhang, D., L. T. Yang, M. Chen, S. Zhao, M. Guo, and Y. Zhang, "Real-time locating systems using active RFID for internet of things," IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1226-1235, 2016.
20. Gu, Y., A. Lo, and I. Niemegeers, "A survey of indoor positioning systems for wireless personal networks," IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor, Vol. 11, No. 1, 13-32, 2009.
21. Uradzinski, M., H. Guo, X. Liu, and M. Yu, "Advanced indoor positioning using zigbee wireless technology," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 97, No. 4, 6509-6518, Dec. 2017.
22. Piontek, H., M. Seyffer, and J. Kaiser, "Improving the accuracy of ultrasound-based localisation systems," Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Vol. 11, No. 6, 439-449, Aug. 2007.
23. Lascio, E. D., A. Varshney, T. Voigt, and C. P. Penichet, "Localight: A battery-free passive localization system using visible light: Poster abstract," Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 60, IEEE Press, 2016.
24. Oppermann, I., M. Hamalainen, and J. Iinatti, UWB: Theory and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
25. Niu, R. and P. K. Varshney, "Joint detection and localization in sensor networks based on local decisions," IEEE Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ACSSC’06), 2006.
26. Ciuonzo, D., P. Salvo Rossi, and P. Willett, "Generalized Rao test for decentralized detection of an uncooperative target," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 24, No. 5, 678-682, 2017.
27. Ciuonzo, D. and P. Salvo Rossi, "Quantizer design for generalized locally-optimum detectors in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, 2017.
28. Ciuonzo, D. and P. Salvo Rossi, "Distributed detection of a non-cooperative target via generalized locally-optimum approaches," Information Fusion, Vol. 36, 261-274, 2017.
29. Nakamura, M., M. Sugimoto, T. Akiyama, and H. Hashizume, "3D FDM-PAM: Rapid and precise indoor 3D localization using acoustic signal for smartphone," UBICOMP ’14 ADJUNCT, 123-126, Seattle, WA, USA, Sep. 13–17, 2014.
30. Mandal, A., C. Lopes, T. Givargis, A. Haghighat, R. Jurdak, and P. Baldi, "Beep: 3D indoor positioning using audible sound," Proc. Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 348-353, 2005.
31. Xu, B., R. Yu, G. Sun, and Z. Yang, "Whistle: Synchronization-free TDOA for localization," 31st International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS’11), 760-769, 2011.
32. Tung, Y. C. and K. G. Shin, "EchoTag: Accurate infrastructure-free indoor location tagging with smartphones," Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom’15), 525-536, 2015.