Vol. 99

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Dual-Band Hexagonal SRR Antennas and Their Applications in SIMO and MISO-Based WLAN/WiMAX Systems

By Puneet Sehgal and Kamlesh Patel
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 99, 139-157, 2023


This article presents the performance of a hexagonal split-ring resonator (H-SRR) antenna in the 2.4/5.2 GHz bands and evaluation of channel capacity for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and multiple-input single-output (MISO) systems. The proposed antenna consists of two hexagonal-shaped split-ring resonators for dual-band operation with higher gain and metallic loadings between the rings to achieve a wide impedance bandwidth. Impedance modeling of the proposed antennas confirms the role of conductance and inductance of metallic loading for enhancing the antenna characteristics, and thus, the fabricated H-SRR antenna achieves dual-band features with improved impedance bandwidth of 50%/76% and a gain of 2.32/2.57 dB at 2.4/5.2 GHz frequency bands. The performance of the hexagonal SRR antenna is then investigated for space diversity applications in the 1×3 SIMO and 3×1 MISO systems with circular SRR antennas. In linear and spherical arrangements of the antennas, the channel capacity is found in the range of 2.7 to 4.8 Mbps at the 2.4/5.2 GHz bands, which also confirms its dependency on the number of antennas as well as on the placement of antennas.


Puneet Sehgal and Kamlesh Patel, "Dual-Band Hexagonal SRR Antennas and Their Applications in SIMO and MISO-Based WLAN/WiMAX Systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 99, 139-157, 2023.


    1. Shah, C. R., "Performance and comparative analysis of SISO, SIMO, MISO and MIMO," International Journal of Wirel. Commun. Simul., Vol. 9, No. 1, 1-4, 2017.

    504 Gateway Time-out

    2. Alrubei, M. A. T., I. A. Alshimaysawe, A. N. Hassan, and A. H. K. Khwayyir, "Capacity analysis and performance comparison of SISO, SIMO, MISO & MIMO systems," Journal of Physics Conference Series, Vol. 1530, No. 1, 12077, 2020.

    3. Bialkowski, M. E., "Research into multiple-element antennas to enhance performance of wireless communication systems," International Conference on Microwaves, Radar & Wireless Communications, 1071-1082, 2006.

    4. Zhang, H. and H. Dai, "On the capacity of distributed MIMO systems," Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, 1-5, Princeton University, 2004.

    5. Shr, K. T., H. D. Chen, and Y. H. Huang, "A low-complexity Viterbi decoder for space-time trellis code," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol. 57, No. 4, 873-885, 2010.

    6. Ghayoula, E., A. Bouallegue, and R. Ghayoula, "Capacity and performance of MIMO systems for wireless communications," Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 108-111, 2014.

    7. Sengar, K., et al., "Study and capacity evaluation of SISO, MISO and MIMO RF wireless communication systems," International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 9, 436-440, 2014.

    8. Giri, N. C., A. Sahoo, and J. R. Swain, "Capacity & performance comparison of SISO and MIMO system for next-generation network (NGN)," International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology, Vol. 3, No. 9, 30131-33035, 2014.

    9. Janaswamy, R., Radio Wave Propagation and Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications, 1st Edition, Springer Science & Business Media, 2001.

    10., , Available at: https://www.comm.utoronto.ca/~rsadve/Notes/DiversityReceive.pdf..

    11. Verdu, S., Multiuser Detection, Cambridge University Press, 1998.

    12., , Available at: https://www.analogictips.com/signal-channel-diversity-fading-part-1-space- diversity/.

    13. Godara, L. C., Handbook of Antennas in Wireless Communications, CRC Press, 2018.

    14. Eldek, A., "Numerical analysis of a small ultra wideband microstrip-fed tap monopole antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 65, 59-69, 2006.

    15. Benkhadda, O., et al., "Compact broadband antenna with Vicsek fractal slots for WLAN and WiMAX applications," Applied Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1142, 2022.

    16. Yamac, Y. E. and S. C. Basaran, "A compact dual-band implantable antenna based on split-ring resonators with meander line slots," 22nd International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications, 1-3, 2016.

    17. Zaker, R., C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, "A modi ed microstrip-fed two-step tapered monopole antenna for UWB and WLAN applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 77, 137-148, 2007.

    18. Basaran, S. C. and K. Sertel, "Dual wideband CPW-fed monopole antenna with split-ring resonators," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 55, No. 9, 2088-2092, 2013.

    19. Gabriel, S., R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: III. Parametric models for the dielectric spectrum of tissues," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 41, No. 11, 2271-2293, 1996.

    20. Sehgal, P. and K. Patel, "Dual-wideband CPW-fed monopole antenna with circular split-ring resonators," 7th International Conference on Signal and Integrated Networks, 1078-1083, 2020.

    21. Sehgal, P. and K. Patel, "Performance analysis and impedance modeling of rectangular and circular split-ring resonator antennas in 2.4/5.2 GHz bands," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 117, 159-171, 2022.

    22. Jagadish, M. and A. S. Pradeep, "Design of hexagonal-shaped split ring resonator for multi-resonant behaviour," Bonfring International Journal of Research in Communication Engineering, Vol. 6, 20-23, 2016.

    23. Singh, A. and S. K. Sharma, "Calculation of resonant frequency of hexagonal split ring resonator using ANN," International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 3, 144-147, 2014.

    24. Rajni, M. A., "An accurate approach of mathematical modeling of SRR and SR for metamaterials," Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, Vol. 9, 82-86, 2016.

    25. Daniel, R. S., R. Pandeeswari, and S. Raghavan, "A miniaturized printed monopole antenna loaded with hexagonal complementary split-ring resonators for multiband operations," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 7, 21401, 2018.

    26. Min, H., J. Lee, and S. Park, "Capacity enhancement using an interference-limited area for device- to-device uplink underlaying cellular networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 10, No. 12, 3995-4000, 2011.

    27. Marques, R., F. Mesa, and J. Martel, "Comparative analysis of edge and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design --- Theory and experiments," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, 2572-2581, 2003.

    28. Cole, H., Z. Hu, and Y. Wang, "Operating range evaluation of RFID system," Advanced Radio Frequency Identi cation Design and Applications, Stevan Preradovic, 1-28, InTech, 2011.

    29. Kaushal, V., A. Birwal, and K. Patel, "Path loss of two-port circular-ring slot antenna for RFID applications," IEEE International Conference on RFID Technology and Applications (RFID-TA), 120-123, Delhi, 2021.

    30. Islam, M. T., et al., "A compact ultrawideband antenna based on hexagonal split-ring resonator for pH sensor application," Sensors, Vol. 18, No. 9, 2959, 2018.

    31. Swetha, A. and M. Vanidivyatha, "CPW fed antenna inspired by a broad side coupled hexagonal SRR for X-band applications," Proceedings of Advances in Decision Sciences, Image Processing, Security and Computer Vision International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering (ICETE), Vol. 2, 52-60, 2019.

    32. Saktioto, et al., "Improvement of low-pro le microstrip antenna performance by hexagonal-shaped SRR structure with DNG metamaterial characteristic as UWB application," Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 61, No. 6, 2022.

    33. Naik, K. K., T. V. Ramakrishna, and T. L. Charan, "Design a tri-band hexagonal patch antenna for wireless applications," Energy Systems, Drives and Automations, 659-667, 2020.