A novel miniaturized high-gain Vivaldi antenna printed on a thin substrate is proposed for operation as multi-band antenna for millimeter-wave applications. The present work proposes a novel geometrical design of the Vivaldi antenna that is printed on the opposite faces of a thin dielectric substrate. The antenna has compact size, and its dimensions are optimized to enhance the performance regarding the bandwidth of impedance matching, gain, and radiation efficiency. To maximize the gain within a desired frequency band, each arm of the Vivaldi antenna is loaded by a ring-shaped parasitic element. The results of the parametric study for antenna design optimization regarding the enhancement of the impedance matching bandwidth and the antennas gain are presented and discussed. Also, it is shown through parametric study that the size and location of the parasitic rings can be optimized to enhance the antenna gain over the desired frequency range. The multiband operation of the proposed Vivaldi antenna is explained in view of the multimode operation that is illustrated by the distributions of the surface current on the antenna arms and the electric field in tapered slot. A novel microstrip line/parallel-strip line balun structure is proposed for feeding the balanced Vivaldi antenna and to achieve wideband impedance matching. The proposed Vivaldi antenna is fabricated and subjected to performance evaluation through measurements. It is shown that the antenna impedance is matched to 50 Ω over the four frequency bands: 22.0-27.7 GHz, 32.0-37.5 GHz, 41.5-46.6 GHz, and 51.7-56.7 GHz. The corresponding bandwidths are 5.7, 5.5, 5.1, and 5.0 GHz, respectively with percent bandwidths of 23%, 16%, 11.6%, and 9.2%, respectively. In spite of its compact size, the achieved values of the maximum gain are 6 dBi, 9 dBi, 11.4 dBi, and 12 dBi over the mentioned frequency bands, respectively. Also, the corresponding values of radiation efficiency are 98%, 97%, 95%, and 93%, respectively. The proposed Vivaldi antenna is fabricated and subjected to measurement for experimental investigation of its performance. The measurement shows good agreement with the simulation results.
2. Chittimoju, G. and U. D. Yalavarthi, "A comprehensive review on millimeter waves applications and antennas," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1804, No. 1, 012205, IOP Publishing, 2021.
3. Kadiyam, S. and A. J. Rani, "Design and analysis of a high gain millimeter-wave antenna array for dual purpose applications," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 130, No. 1, 593-607, 2023.
4. Bhattacharjee, A., A. Bhawal, A. Karmakar, and A. Saha, "Design of an antipodal Vivaldi antenna with fractal-shaped dielectric slab for enhanced radiation characteristics," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 62, No. 5, 2066-2074, 2020.
5. Gibson, P., "The Vivaldi aerial," 9th European Microwave Conference, Vol. 1, 101-105, 1979.
6. Gazit, E., "Improved design of the Vivaldi antenna," IEE Proceedings H — Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 135, 89-92, 1988.
7. Karmakar, A., A. Bhattacharjee, A. Saha, and A. Bhawal, "Design of a fractal inspired antipodal vivaldi antenna with enhanced radiation characteristics for wideband applications," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 13, No. 7, 892-897, 2019.
8. Dixit, A. S. and S. Kumar, "Gain enhancement of antipodal Vivaldi antenna for 5G applications using metamaterial," Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. 121, No. 4, 2667-2679, 2021.
9. Bang, J., J. Lee, and J. Choi, "Design of a wideband antipodal Vivaldi antenna with an asymmetric parasitic patch," Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, 29-34, 2018.
10. Nassar, I. T. and T. M. Weller, "A novel method for improving antipodal Vivaldi antenna performance," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 63, No. 7, 3321-3324, 2015.
11. Teni, G., N. Zhang, J. Qiu, and P. Zhang, "Research on a novel miniaturized antipodal Vivaldi antenna with improved radiation," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 417-420, 2013.
12. Vinci, G. and R. Weigel, "Multiband planar vivaldi antenna for mobile communication and industrial applications," 2010 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, 93-96, IEEE, 2010.
13. Indira, N. D., B. T. P. Madhav, K. Balaji, B. Rajagopalarao, and V. K. Kishore, "Multiband Vivaldi antenna for X and Ku band applications," InternationalJournal of Advanced Networking and Applications, Vol. 3, No. 5, 1375, 2012.
14. Kumar, R. and S. Priyadarshi, "Multi-band Vivaldi antenna for wireless communication: Design, analysis and modelling of vivaldi antenna," 2016 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES), 1-4, IEEE, 2016.
15. Kapoor, A., P. Kumar, and R. Mishra, "High gain modified Vivaldi vehicular antenna for IoV communications in 5G network," Heliyon, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2022.
16. Ameen, J. J. H., "Design and simulation of multi-band M-shaped Vivaldi antenna," Intelligent Systems Design and Applications: 17th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications (ISDA 2017) held in Delhi, India, December 14–16, 2017, 903-912, Springer International Publishing, 2018.
17. Chagharvand, S., M. R. Hamid, M. R. Kamarudin, and J. R. Kelly, "Wide and multi-band reconfigurable Vivaldi antenna with slot-line feed," Telecommunication Systems, Vol. 65, 79-85, 2017.
18. Selvaraj, D., R. Priyadarshini, S. Sharon Hephzibah, S. Vaishnavi, B. K. Tanmae, and M. Yuvashree, "Design of Triband Vivaldi antenna for UWB application," International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), Vol. 6, No. III, March 2018, available at www.ijraset.com.
19. Dixit, A. S. and S. Kumar, "A dual band antipodal Vivaldi antenna for fifth-generation applications," 2021 IEEE Indian Conference on Antennas and Propagation (InCAP), 224-227, IEEE, 2021.
20. Yassin, M. E., K. F. A. Hussein, Q. H. Abbasi, M. A. Imran, and S. A. Mohassieb, "Flexible antenna with circular/linear polarization for wideband biomedical wireless communication," Sensors, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2023.
21. Fouad, M. S., A. E. Farahat, K. F. A. Hussein, A. H. A. Shaalan, and M. F. Ahmed, "Super-wideband fractal antenna for future generations of wireless communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 136, 137-149, 2023.
22. Dixit, A. S. and S. Kumar, "The enhanced gain and cost-effective antipodal Vivaldi antenna for 5G communication applications," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 62, No. 6, 2365-2374, 2020.
23. Dixit, A. S. and S. Kumar, "A wideband antipodal Vivaldi antenna," 2021 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICSC), 11-14, IEEE, 2021.