Vol. 50

Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Highly Directive Hybrid Plasmonic Leaky Wave Optical Nano-Antenna

By Leila Yousefi
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 50, 85-90, 2014


A novel traveling-wave hybrid plasmonic optical antenna is proposed for operation at the standard telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm and with the frequency bandwidth of more than 16 THz. A highly directive radiation pattern with 15.2 dBi directivity and 82% efficiency is achieved. The developed antenna benefits from high directivity advantage of leaky-wave antennas, and low loss properties and confinement of hybrid plasmonic structures. The designed device can have applications in inter/intera chip optical interconnect, and absorption enhancement of photodetectors, and solar cells.


Leila Yousefi, "Highly Directive Hybrid Plasmonic Leaky Wave Optical Nano-Antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 50, 85-90, 2014.


    1. Novotny, L. and N. Van Hulst, "Antennas for light," Nat. Photon., Vol. 5, 83-90, 2011.

    2. Tang, L., S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, "Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna," Nat. Photon., Vol. 2, 226-229, 2008.

    3. Cao, L., J.-S. Park, P. Fan, B. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, "Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors," Nano Lett., Vol. 10, 1229-1233, 2010.

    4. Anker, J. N., W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, "Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nat. Mater., Vol. 7, 442-453, 2008.

    5. De Wilde, Y., F. Formanek, R. Carminati, B. Gralak, P. A. Lemoine, K. Joulain, J.-P. Mulet, Y. Chen, and J.-J. Greffet, "Thermal Radiation Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy," Nature, Vol. 444, 740-743, 2006.

    6. Schuller, J. A., T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersm, "Optical antenna thermal emitters," Nat. Photon., Vol. 3, 658-661, 2009.

    7. Alu, A. and N. Engheta, "Hertzian plasmonic nanodimer as an efficient optical nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 78, 195111, 2008.

    8. Alu, A. and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 101, 043901, 2008.

    9. Sederberg, S. and A. Elezzabi, "Sierpiski fractal plasmonic antenna: A fractal abstraction of the plasmonic bowtie antenna," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, 10456-10461, 2011.

    10. Sederberg, S. and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Nanoscale plasmonic contour bowtie antenna operating in the mid-infrared," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, 15532-15537, 2011.

    11. Lee, H., S. You, P. V. Pikhitsa, J. Kim, S. Kwon, C. G. Woo, and M. Choi, "Three-dimensional assembly of nanoparticles from charged aerosols," Nano Lett., Vol. 11, 119-124, 2010.

    12. Dregely, D., K. Lindfors, M. Lippitz, N. Engheta, M. Totzeck, and H. Giessen, "Imaging and steering an optical wireless nanoantenna link," Nature Communications, Vol. 5, 4354, 2014.

    13. Kosako, T., Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, "Directional control of light by a nano-optical YagiUda antenna," Nat. Photon., Vol. 4, 312-315, 2010.

    14. Liu, X. and A. Alu, "Subwavelength leaky-wave optical nanoantennas: Directive radiation from linear arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 82, 144305, 2010.

    15. Wang, Y., A. S. Helmy, and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Ultra-wideband optical leaky-wave slot antennas," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, 12392-12401, 2011.

    16. Novotny, L. and S. J. Stranick, "Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes," Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., Vol. 57, 303331, 2006.

    17. Yousefi, L. and A. C. Foster, "Waveguide-fed optical hybrid plasmonic patch nano-antenna," Opt. Express, Vol. 20, 195111, 2012.

    18. Ooi, K. J. A., P. Bai, M. X. Gu, and L. K. Ang, "Design of a monopole-antenna-based resonant nanocavity for detection of optical power from hybrid plasmonic waveguides," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, 17075-17085, 2011.

    19. Yaacobi, A., E. Timurdogan, and M. R. Watts, "Vertical emitting aperture nanoantennas," Opt. Letters, Vol. 37, 1454-1456, 2012.

    20. Song, Q., S. Campione, O. Boyraz, and F. Capolino, "Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, 8735-8749, 2011.

    21. Sacher, W. D., Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, "Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler," Opt. Express, Vol. 22, 10938-10947, 2014.

    22. Alam, M. Z., J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, "Super mode propagation in low index medium," Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, JThD112, 2007.

    23. Dai, D. and S. He, "A silicon-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide with a metal cap for a nano-scale light confinement," Opt. Express, Vol. 17, 16646-16653, 2009.

    24. Salvador, R., A. Martinez, C. Garcia-Meca, R. Ortuno, and J. Marti, "Analysis of hybrid dielectric plasmonic waveguides," Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal, Vol. 14, 1496-1501, 2008.

    25. Avrutsky, I., R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, "Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap," Opt. Express, Vol. 18, 348-363, 2010.

    26. Wu, M., Z. Han, and V. Van, "Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale," Opt. Express, Vol. 18, 11728-11736, 2010.

    27. Pitarke, J. M., V. M. Silkin, E. V. Chulkov, and P. M. Echenique, "Theory of surface plasmons and surface-plasmon polaritons,", Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 70, 1, 2007.

    28. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd edition, Wiley, 2005.

    29. Johnson, P. B. and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 6, 4370, 1972.