Electromagnetic wave propagation suffers attenuation and phase rotation by suspended dust particles especially in arid and semi-arid regions where occurrence of sand and dust storms (SDS) is predominant. The SDS phenomenon has received considerable interest in recent times with emphasis on signal attenuation and phase rotation effects. To this end, mathematical models of dust induced complex scattering are developed and proposed in this paper using Rayleigh method to compute attenuation and phase rotation of electromagnetic waves by considering dust particle shapes and best fit ellipsoids. This work also presents a new expression for the relation between visibility and dust concentration. The expression was included in the proposed models whose simulated results, compared with some published results, show close agreement. Attenuation and phase rotation in dry dust are found to be significant only when visibility becomes severe or at increased microwave bands.
2. Musa, A., S. O. Bashir, and A. H. Abdalla, "Review and assessment of electromagnetic wave propagation in sand and dust storms at microwave and millimeter wave bands - Part I," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 91-100, 2014.
3. Dong, Q., L. Wang, L. Yingle, M. Wang, X. Jiadong, and B. Wang, "Effect of charged sand particles on microwave propagation along earth-space paths," International Conference on Remote Sensing, Environment and Transportation Engineering, 681-684, 2013.
4. Chiou, M. M. and J. F. Kiang, "Attenuation of millimeter-wave in a sand and dust storm," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., Vol. 13, No. 8, 1094-1098, 2016.
5. Dou, X. Q. and L. Xie, "Electromagnetic wave attenuation due to the charged particles in dust & sand storms," Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, Vol. 196, 169-175, 2017.
6. Musa, A., S. O. Bashir, and A. H. Abdalla, "Review and assessment of electromagnetic wave propagation in sand and dust storms at microwave and millimeter wave bands - Part II," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 101-110, 2014.
7. Sharif, S. M., "Dust storms properties related to microwave signal propagation," University of Khartoum Engineering Journal (UofKEJ), Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-9, 2011.
8. Goldhirsh, J., "Attenuation and backscatter from a derived two-dimensional duststorm model," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 12, 1703-1711, 2001.
9. Chepil, W. S. and N. P. Woodruff, "Sedimentary characterisation of duststorms: II - Visibility and dust concentration," American Journal Sci., Vol. 255, 1974.
10. Ghobrial, S. and S. Sharief, "Microwave attenuation and cross polarization in dust storms," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 35, 418-425, 1987.
11. Chen, H. Y. and C. Ku, "Microwave and millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms," International Conference on Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communication, 527-532, IEEE, Warsaw, Poland, 2012.
12. Ahmed, A. S., "Role of particle-size distributions on millimeter-wave propagation in sand/duststorms," Inst. Electr. Eng. Proceedings, Vol. 134, 55-59, 1987.
13. Van de Hulst, H. C., Light Scattering by Small Particles, John Wiley and Sons, New York, (reprinted Dover Publications, Inc., New York 1981), 1981.
14. Alhaider, M. A., "Radio wave propagation into sandstorms system design based on ten-years visibility data in Riyadh Saudi Arabia," Int.J. Inf. Millim. Waves, Vol. 7, 1339-1359, 1986.
15. Dong, X. Y. and H. Y. Chen, "Microwave and millimeter wave attenuation in sand and dust storms," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propagation Lett., Vol. 10, 469-471, 2011.
16. Ippolito, L. J., Satellite Communications Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008.