Characterizing the random errors at the elements of a phased array antenna leads to equations that estimate the associated performance degradation. The increase in sidelobe level and decrease in gain due to random errors is well established. This paper derives an expression that predicts the axial ratio degradation due to random errors in the circularly polarized elements of an array. In the case of small errors in an array of crossed dipoles, we found a simple expression for the axial ratio of the array under random errors at broadside.
2. Fulton, C., M. Yeary, D. Thompson, J. Lake, and A. Mitchell, "Digital phased arrays: Challenges and opportunities," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 104, No. 3, 487-503, March 2016.
3. Ruze, J., "Antenna tolerance theory — A review," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 54, 633-640, April 1966.
4. Brookner, E., "Antenna array fundamentals — Part 2," Practical Phased Array Antenna Systems, E. Brookner, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1991.
5. Haupt, R. L., Antenna Arrays: A Computational Approach, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
6. Ruiz, P. M., I. Hinostroza, R. Guinvarc’h, and R. L. Haupt, "Antenna pattern effects in a low sidelobe circularly polarized array due to element errors," Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA — IEEE APWC), Cartagena, Colombia, September 10–14, 2018.
7. Haupt, R. L., "Adaptative crossed dipole antennas using a genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 8, 1976-1982, August 2004.
8. Terrell, G. and D. Scott, "Oversmoothed nonparametric density estimates," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 80, No. 389, 209-214, March 1985.