Frequency diversity array (FDA) can generate distance and angle dependent ``S'' beam patterns, but there is a problem of distance and angle coupling, which can be well solved by using nonlinear frequency offset in recent years' research. The rotational symmetry of the arc-shaped structure brings the beam scanning capability of the array antenna within a range of 360°, which can realize the all-round monitoring of the target position, and provides a more flexible method for radar communication. In this paper, a nonlinear frequency offset based frequency diversity arc array (FDAA) beam scanning method is proposed, which activates the selection matrix according to the target direction. In order to form equal phase plane beam scanning, phase compensation between array elements is carried out, and three kinds of nonlinear frequency bias are introduced to simulate beampattern synthesis. Compared with the traditional linear frequency offset FDAA, the numerical simulation results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the scheme.
2. Wang, W. Q., "Frequency diverse array antenna: New opportunities," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 145-152, 2015.
3. Ivashina, M. V., R. Maaskant, and B.Woestenburg, "Equivalent system representation to model the beam sensitivity of receiving antenna arrays," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 7, 733-737, 2008.
4. Wang, W. Q., "Range-angle dependent transmit beampattern synthesis for linear frequency diverse arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 8, 4073-4081, 2013.
5. Wang, Y., W. Q. Wang, and H. Chen, "Linear frequency diverse array manifold geometry and ambiguity analysis," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, 984-993, 2015.
6. Liao, T., Y. Pan, and W. Q. Wang, "Generalized linear frequency diverse array manifold curve analysis," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 25, No. 6, 768-772, 2018.
7. Wang, Y. and S. Zhu, "Range ambiguous clutter suppression for FDA-MIMO forward looking airborne radar based on main lobe correction," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2032-2046, 2021.
8. Gui, R., W. Q. Wang, A. Farina, and H. C. So, "FDA radar with doppler-spreading consideration: Mainlobe clutter suppression for blind-doppler target detection," Signal Processing, Vol. 179, 107773, 2021.
9. Khan, W., I. M. Qureshi, A. Basit, A. N. Malik, and A. Umar, "Performance analysis of MIMO- frequency diverse array radar with variable logarithmic offsets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 62, 23-34, 2016.
10. Nusenu, S. Y., H. Chen, W.-Q. Wang, S. Ji, and O. A. K. Opuni-Boachie, "Frequency diverse array using Butler matrix for secure wireless communications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 63, 207-215, 2018.
11. Wang, W. Q., H. C. So, and H. Shao, "Nonuniform frequency diverse array for range-angle imaging of targets," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 14, No. 8, 2469-2476, 2014.
12. Khan, W., I. M. Qureshi, and S. Saeed, "Frequency diverse array radar with logarithmically increasing frequency offset," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 499-502, 2015.
13. Gao, K., W. Q. Wang, J. Cai, and X. Jie, "Decoupled frequency diverse array range-angle-dependent beampattern synthesis using non-linearly increasing frequency offsets," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 10, No. 8, 880-884, 2016.
14. Shao, H., J. Dai, J. Xiong, H. Chen, and W. Q. Wang, "Dot-shaped range-angle beampattern synthesis for frequency diverse array," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 15, 1703-1706, 2016.
15. Chen, B., X. Chen, Y. Huang, and J. Guan, "Transmit beampattern synthesis for the FDA radar," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 17, No. 1, 98-101, 2018.
16. Basit, A., I. M. Qureshi, W. Khan, S. U. Rehman, and M. M. Khan, "Beam pattern synthesis for an FDA radar with hamming window-based nonuniform frequency offset," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2283-2286, 2017.
17. Liao, Y., W. Q. Wang, and Z. Zheng, "Frequency diverse array beampattern synthesis using symmetrical logarithmic frequency offsets for target indication," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 5, 3505-3509, 2019.
18. Zubair, M., S. Ahmed, and M. S. Alouini, "Frequency diverse array radar: New results and discrete fourier transform based beampattern," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 68, 2670-2681, 2020.
19. Liao, Y., H. Tang, X. Chen, and W. Q. Wang, "Frequency diverse array beampattern synthesis with Taylor windowed frequency offsets," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1901-1905, 2020.
20. Wang, W. Q. and H. C. So, "Transmit subaperturing for range and angle estimation in frequency diverse array radar," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 62, No. 8, 2000-2011, 2014.
21. Nusenu, S. Y, A. Basit, and E. Asare, "FDA transmit beamforming synthesis using Chebyshev window function technique to counteract deceptive electronic countermeasures signals," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 90, 53-60, 2020.
22. Wang, Z., T. Mu, Y. Song, and Z. Ahmad, "Beamforming of frequency diverse array radar with nonlinear frequency offset based on logistic map," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 64, 55-63, 2018.
23. Xu, W., J. Hu, P. Huang, W. Tan, and Y. Dong, "Multiaperture antenna architecture design for azimuth uniform sampling in high-resolution wide-swath SAR," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 19, No. 6, 1042-1046, 2020.
24. Donelli, M., T. Moriyama, and M. Manekiya, "A compact switched-beam planar antenna array for wireless sensors operating at Wi-Fi band," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 83, 137-145, 2018.
25. Donelli, M. and P. Febvre, "An inexpensive reconfigurable planar array for Wi-Fi applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,, Vol. 28, 71-81, 2012.
26. Viani, F., L. Lizzi, M. Donelli, D. Pregnolato, G. Oliveri, and A. Massa, "Exploitation of parasitic smart antennas in wireless sensor networks," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 24, No. 7, 993-1003, 2010.
27. Lin, Y., W. Hong, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and M. Xiang, "Airborne circular SAR imaging: Results at P-band," 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 5594-5597, 2012.
28. Huang, P., W. Tan, and Y. Su, "MIMO-SAR imaging technology for helicopter-borne based on ARC antenna array," 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 1801-1804, 2015.
29. Akkoc, A., E. Afacan, and E. Yazgan, "Dot-shaped 3D range-angle dependent beamforming with discular frequency diverse array," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 69, No. 10, 6500-6508, 2021.